The following information was obtained from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Tanzania. Discuss your travel plans and personal fitness with a health-care provider to decide which vaccines you will need.
Hepatitis A or immune globulin (IG).
Virus can happen through direct person-to-person contact; through contact to unclean water, ice, or shellfish harvested in dirty water; or from fruits, vegetables, or other diets that are eaten raw and that were contaminated during harvesting or succeeding handling.
Mainly if you might be exposed to blood or body fluids (for example, health-care workers), have sexual interaction with the native population, or be exposed through medical treatment. Hepatitis B vaccine is now suggested for all newborns and for kids’ ages 11-12 years who did not receive the series as infants.
Your danger of malaria may be great in all countries in East Africa, including cities. You can see your health care provider for a prescription antimalarial drug. Malaria is always a serious disease and may be a deadly illness. Humans get malaria from the bite of a mosquito infected with the parasite. Your risk of malaria may be high in all countries in East Africa, including cities. All travelers to East Africa, including infants, children, and former residents of East Africa, may be at risk for malaria. Prevent this serious disease by seeing your health care provider for a prescription antimalarial drug and by protecting yourself against mosquito bites.
All travelers should take one of the following drugs:
atovaquone/ proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, or primaquine (in special circumstances).
Pre-exposure vaccination, if you might have extensive unprotected outside experience in rural areas, such as might occur during camping, climbing, or bicycling, or engaging in certain working activities.
Typhoid disease can be contracted through unclean intake water or diet, or by eating diet or drinking beverages that have been touched by a person who is diseased. Large eruptions are most frequently related to fecal contamination of water supplies or diets sold by street vendors’
A viral infection that occurs chiefly in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America, is spread to humans through the bite of ill mosquitoes. The virus is also present in Panama and Trinidad and Tobago. Yellow fever vaccination is suggested for travelers to widespread areas and may be required to cross certain international borders (For country specific requirements, see Yellow Fever Vaccine Requirements and Information on Malaria Risk and Prophylaxis, by Country.).
Vaccination must be given 10 days earlier travel and at 10 year intervals if there is on-going risk. • As desired, booster doses for tetanus-diphtheria, measles, and a one-time dose of polio vaccine for adults.
Food and Waterborne Diseases
make sure your diet and drinking water are safe. Diet and waterborne diseases are the primary cause of illness in travelers. Travelers’ diarrhea can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites, which are found throughout East Africa and can infect diet or water. Infections may cause diarrhea and vomiting (E. coli, Salmonella, cholera, and parasites), fever (typhoid fever and toxoplasmosis), or liver damage (hepatitis).
To stay clean and healthy, do…
- Wash your hands frequently with soap and water or, if hands are not visibly muddy, use a waterless, alcohol-based hand rub to eliminate possibly communicable materials from your skin and help stop disease spread.
- In developing countries, drink only bottled or boiled water or carbonated (bubbly) drinks in cans or bottles. Avoid tap water source drinks, and ice cubes. If this is not possible, learn how to make water harmless to drink.
- Take your malaria prevention medicine before, during, and after travel, as directed by your health care provider
- To prevent fungal and parasitic contaminations, keep feet clean and dry, and do not go barefooted, even on beaches.
- Always use rubber condoms to reduce the risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.
- Protect yourself from mosquito insect bites:
- Wear long shirts, long pants, and caps when outside.
- Use insect repellents that contain also to avoid mosquito bites
You have to avoid the following
- Do not eat diet bought from street vendors or diet that is not well roasted to reduce risk of contamination (i.e., hepatitis A and typhoid fever).
- Do not drink beverages with ice.
- Avoid dairy products, unless you know they have been sterilized.
- Do not swim in fresh water to evade exposure to certain water-borne diseases such as schistosomiasis.
- Do not handle animals, mainly monkeys, dogs, and cats, to avoid bites and serious diseases (including rabies and plague). Consider pre-exposure rabies vaccination if you might have extensive vulnerable outside contact in rural areas.
- Do not share needles for tattoos, body sharp or injections to prevent infections such as HIV and hepatitis B.